Mesothelioma is a form of aggressive cancer that affects the membrane lining contained within the lungs and abdomen. It is the most fatal of all asbestos-related diseases, in which the primary cause for it is exposure to asbestos. It is particularly difficult for doctors to accurately diagnose mesothelioma as the disease often presents itself with symptoms that mimic other commonly occurring sickness. As such, there is no prominent cure for mesothelioma, but there are treatments in the form of surgeries and chemotherapis that have helped to improve the usual mesothelioma prognosis.
Three quarters of all mesothelioma incidents are commonly pleural mesothelioma, which affects the pleural, the protective lining of the lungs and chest cavity. The remainder comprises of peritoneal mesothelioma (peritoneum, the abdominal cavity) and pericardial mesothelioma (cardiac activity).
Between 50% to 70% of all mesotheliomas are of the epithelial varieties, and these three are the msot recognized mesothelioma cell-types. Even though the prognosis is generally poor, it is considered the less agressive compared to the sarcomatold mesothelioma and biphasic mesothelioma, which comprises the remainder of cell type diagnoses.
Mesothelioma got its name as it frequently happens in the mesothelium. Mesothelium is the membrane of cells surrounding the cavities that encompasses the chest, abdomen, and heart. It assisst in general organ function, and is particularly important for organs that are commonly in motion, namely the expansion or contraction of lungs, stomach, or the heart. The lubrication from the mesothelial cell helps the free range of motion within the body.
The mesothelium of the chest is called pleura, for the abdomen peritoneum, and for the heart is pericardium. Each of them is extremely critical to the function of the body structure.
Malignant occurring within the mesothelial cell membranes are known as malignant mesothelioma. Benign mesothelium tumor are also known to occur , but it is rarer than malignant mesothelioma.
Even though, mesothelioma tumors were initially recognized in the late 18th century, it was during the middle of 20th century that this particular cancer were researched with more detail. During this time, the suspicions of the cancer’s causal relationship with exposure to asbestos became more substantiated. A joint research of the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Witswater and Johannesburg General Hospital, South Africa, provided one of the most compelling evidence of the nexus between asbestos exposure and the development of pleural mesothelioma.
However, with only 2,500-3000 cases in the United State each year, mesothelioma incidences is still considered rare. A spike in the reported cases between 1970 and 1984, attributed to the latency period between diagnosis and the height of the industrial exposures, occurring roughly 40 to 60 years prior of the time. Exposure was particularly common during the World War Two -era of the military industrial cycle, which included Navy Shipyard.
- Rahsia suri rumah dapat barang murah setiap hari LIHAT SINI <<==
Despite this form of cancer is commonly occurring in men over 60 years of age , as it is largely attributed the the male-dominated industrial exposures), it can still occur in women and children. Most of the causes for the latter two, is attributed to second hand exposure, as it is not uncommon for the men to bring the exposure back into their home via their body or clothing.
Mesothelioma can be diagnosed with a comprehensive combination of proper biopsy and imaging scans. Nevertheless, it had to be admitted that mesothelioma can be a difficult malignancy to diagnose as the symptoms closely resembled other types of respiratory problems. Also, the pathology can be hard to distinguish from the adenocarcinoma of the lungs. This reason itself made misdiagnosis uncommon for mesothelioma patients. Among the symptoms of mesothelioma are chest pains, chronic cough, effusions of the chest and abdomen, and presence of blood in the lungs’ fluid.
Diagnostic-type surgeries, including a biopsy, may be required to determine the type of malignant cells present within the body. Usually treatments that are required to determine the extent and location of the diseases are a body imaging scan, which included magnetic resonance image (MRI), computer topography (CT scan), and, or positron emission tomography (PET).
While mesothelioma is typically advanced at diagnosis, treatment options are available.
Mesothelioma is still considered a manageable malignancy, despite being an aggressive type of cancer. Even though there is no cure for the cancer yet, there are treatment options available, which may potentially include surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiation therapies. Currently, the only FDA approved chemotherapy regimen is the combination of Alimta® and Cisplatin, however, there are several clinical trials in progress utilizing other drugs such as Gemcitabine and Onconase, whihc hopefully may lead to a new treatment options for the benefits of the patients
Another form of therapy, raidation therapy, may also be utilized, but usually in complement with other treatments such as surgeries and chemotherapies. In early stage diagnosed patients, surgical resection of mesothelioma is possible. Other treatments that are commonly performed in patients with malignant mesothelioma in order to minimize the cancer-related symptoms are diagnostic and palliative procedures like thoracentesis and pleurodesis. Aside from that, alternative therapies had also been used effectively by many mesothelioma patients to assist then in managing conventional treatments and symptoms of the disease.
Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos.
Mesothelioma have been reported occurring in children or individuals with no prior asbestos exposure history, though it primarily caused by exposure to asbestos. Still, this is not impossible, as asbestos is microscopic and a naturally occurring mineral, that is able to be lodged within the pleural lining of the lungs and the peritoneal linings of the abdominal cavity. For most cases, it will pass up to 60 years before it develops in those who had been exposed.